Jairo García Jaramillo, Memoria contra el olvido: las escritoras de la generación del 27 [Memory against the oblivion: the women writers of the generation of ’27], 2017
The female writers of the “Generation of 27”, in the same way as many other women of our cultural history, have been made invisible from the beginning by the hegemonic tale of the Republican period, constituting a true blind spot in the manuals of literature, bibliographic repertoires, anthologies and study programs of the different educative levels in Spain. By joining the theoretical bases of historical materialism and critical feminism, this essay in its first part means to study in depth the reasons for this selective forgetfulness by the men who experienced together with them the Republican fervour, the [Spanish Civil] war and the long way of exile, without forgetting the very pernicious policies of oblivion exercised by the dictatorship and the indifference of the subsequent democratic governments, that have crossed them out little by little from the collective memory.
In line with the memorialist currents of recent decades, and facing a system of life that never remembers, the second part enters into the origin of the first female intellectuals of the 20th century in order to explain how their pioneering political and educational claims made possible this following generation of vanguard women who, already in the space of Republican freedom, arrived at being fundamental names of our letters, still to be rediscovered, such as among others Rosa Chacel, María Zambrano, Concha Méndez or Ernestina de Chapourcín.
excerpts from an article by Adolfo S. Ruiz:
“They were intelligent, corageous, committed and great writers, but nearly all are unknown and many have been forgotten. As if they had never existed. For the publishing world, literary history, educational programs and the general public, they continue being invisible.” […]
As exceptions, María Zambrano and Rosa Chancel have not been forgotten. … María Teresa León comes up, but always as Rafael Alberti’s wife. … Besides poetry, they also wrote prose, e.g.
Luisa Carnés, Tea Rooms: Mujeres obreras [Tea Rooms: working women] (1934), recently republished
Carmen Conde, Júbilos [jubilations]
María Teresa León, Cuentos de la España actual [Stories from current Spain] (1935)
All of them remained faithful to the Republic, which led most of them to external exile, the others to an internal exile, in which their Republican past was never pardoned. … They are not meant to substitue the male writers of the Generation of 1927, but to have the place they deserve next to them as equal contributors to one of the richest periods of Spanish literary history.
The Wikipedia offers this article on the Generation of ’27 that also contains links to the biographical articles on individual writers.
The women of this generation have been called Las Sinsombrero [the hatless]; the Wikipedia has got this article (in Spanish and Catalan only). Among the references are books also available in English by Shirley Mangini and Susan Kirkpatrick, though they might have been out of print for quite a long time…